Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrich Zwingli & John Knox


Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach 1528.
Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach 1528.

Martin Luther 1483-1546

Germany – monk, priest, reformer, author & professor of theology
Rejected five of the seven sacraments – sale of indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, prayers to Saints and the Catholic Mass.
Salvation achieved through faith not good works.
Transubstantiation – real body and blood of Christ.
Denied Papal authority.
Importance of the Scriptures.
Bible should be in the vernacular.
For clerical marriage.
Works:- * Ninety-Five Theses (1517) * Appeal to the German Nobility (1520) * Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520) * Freedom of a Christian (1520) * On Secular Authority (1523) * Bondage of the Will (1525) * Small and Large Catechisms (1529)

John Calvin by Hans Holbein.
John Calvin by Hans Holbein.

John Calvin 1509-1564

France – humanist lawyer, theologian, reformer, author & pastor
Rejected five of the seven sacraments – sale of indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, prayers to Saints and the Catholic Mass.
Salvation achieved through faith not good works.
Transubstantiation – body and blood of Christ merely symbolic.
Denied Papal authority.
Importance of the Scriptures.
Separation of Church and State.
Works:- * The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) * Commentaries on books of the Bible (1551-1564) * Psychopannychia (1534) * The Texts of Seneca’s De Clementia, with Commentary (1532)

Huldrich Zwingli by Hans Asper, about 1531.
Huldrich Zwingli by Hans Asper, about 1531.

Huldrich Zwingli 1484-1531

Switzerland – humanist, pastor, chaplain & politician
Rejected five of the seven sacraments – sale of indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, prayers to Saints and the Catholic Mass.
Transubstantiation – body and blood of Christ merely symbolic.
Denied Papal authority.
Importance of the Scriptures.
For clerical marriage.
Against fasting during Lent.
Works:- * A Friendly Exegesis (1527) * Commentary on True and False Religion (1525) * Explanation of the Christian Faith (1531) * Interpretation and Justification of the Theses or Articles (1523) * An Exposition of the Faith (1530) * Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God (1522)

John Knox 1572.
John Knox 1572.

John Knox 1513-1572

Scotland – preacher, pastor, reformer & author
Rejected five of the seven sacraments – sale of indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, prayers to Saints and the Catholic Mass.
Salvation achieved through faith not good works.
Transubstantiation – body and blood of Christ merely symbolic.
Denied Papal authority.
Works:- * The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1559) * The History of the Reformation in Scotland (1587) * Scots Confession (1560) * On Predestination in Answer to the Cavillations by an Anabaptist (1560) * A Vindication of the Doctrine that the Sacrifice of the Mass is Idolatry (1550)

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One thought on “Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrich Zwingli & John Knox

  1. Rejected five of the seven sacraments – sale of indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, prayers to Saints and the Catholic Mass. If you are saying that those listed are sacraments, I thought I’d let you know that the seven sacraments are baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance (confession is part of that), anointing of the sick, holy orders and matrimony.

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