Name: Philip II of Spain.
Title/s: King of Spain / King of England / King of Portugal / Duke of Milan.
Birth / Death: 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598.
Spouse: Maria of Portugal 1527 – 1545 / Mary I of England 1518 – 1558 / Elizabeth of Valois 1545 – 1568 / Anne of Austria 1549 – 1580.
Children: Carlos Prince of Asturias 1545 – 1568 (by Maria of Portugal) / Isabella Clara Eugenia 1566 – 1633 / Catherine Michelle 1567 – 1597 (by Elizabeth of Valois) / Ferdinand Prince of Asturias 1571 – 1578 / Charles Laurence 1573 – 1575 / Diego Prince of Asturias 1575 – 1582 / Philip III of Spain 1578 – 1621 / Maria 1580 – 1583 (by Anne of Austria).
Parents: Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500 – 1558 & Isabella of Portugal 1503 – 1539.
Siblings: Maria of Austria 1528-1603 / Joanna of Austria 1535-1573 / John 1537 / Ferdinand 1529-1533
Noble Connections: When Philip II married Mary I, he was in fact marrying his aunt. His grand-mother was Mary’s mother’s sister. His father was the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He was directly descended from Ferdinand and Isabella and Spain.
Events of their Lifetime: St Bartholomew’s Massacre, the Netherlands declared independence, reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I in England, the defeat of the Spanish Armada, the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
Controversy: There was controversy over Philip’s stay in England. The English and Spanish servants didn’t get on and there were cases of violence. Philip also intended to recruit the English for his armies fighting on the Continent. Once Philip returned to Spain in 1559 he didn’t leave it again and the people lost confidence in their King.
Works of Fiction:
Gregory, Philippa, The Queen’s Fool (2004)
Kelsey, Harry, Philip of Spain, King of England: the Forgotten Sovereign (2011)
Turtledove, Harry, Ruled Britannia (2002)
Portrayals on Screen:
Peter Jeffrey, Elizabeth R, 1971, 2 episodes
Jordi Molla, Elizabeth: the Golden Age, 2007, directed by Shekhar Kapur
Juanjo Puigcorbe, La Conjura de El Escorial, 2008, directed by Antonio Del Real
George Yiasoumi, Elizabeth, 1998, directed by Shekhar Kapur
Kamen, Henry, Philip of Spain (1999)
Parker, Geoffrey, The Grand Strategy of Philip II (1998)
Parker, Geoffrey, Imprudent King: a New Life of Philip II (2014)
Patterson, Benton Rain, With the Heart of a King: Elizabeth I of England, Philip II of Spain and the Fight for a Nation’s Soul and Crown (2007)