|1457||28 January||Birth of Henry VII|
|1466||11 February||Birth of Elizabeth of York|
|1485||22 August||Henry VII defeats Richard III at Battle of Bosworth|
|16 September||Birth of Katherine of Aragon|
|30 October||Coronation of Henry VII|
|1486||18 January||Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York|
|20 September||Birth of Prince Arthur|
|1487||17 June||Defeat of Lambert Simnel at Battle of Stoke|
|1489||28 November||Birth of Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland|
|1491||28 June||Birth of Henry VIII|
|1496||18 March||Birth of Mary Tudor, Queen of France and Duchess of Suffolk|
|1499||28 November||Execution of Edward, Earl of Warwick|
|1501||14 November||Marriage of Katherine of Aragon and Prince Arthur|
|1502||2 April||Death of Prince Arthur|
|1503||11 February||Death of Elizabeth of York|
|8 August||Marriage of Margaret Tudor and James IV of Scotland|
|1509||21 April||Death of Henry VII and accession of Henry VIII|
|11 June||Marriage of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon|
|24 June||Coronation of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon|
|29 June||Death of Margaret Beaufort|
|1511||1 January||Birth of Henry, Duke of Cornwall|
|1513||16 August||Battle of the Spurs|
|9 September||Defeat of James IV of Scotland at Battle of Flodden|
|1515||22 September||Birth of Anne of Cleves|
|1516||18 February||Birth of Mary I|
|1519||15 June||Birth of Henry VIII’s illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy|
|1520||7 June||Beginning of the Field of the Cloth of Gold|
|24 June||End of the Field of the Cloth of Gold|
|1521||17 May||Execution of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham|
|17 October||Pope grants Henry VIII title ‘Defender of the Faith’|
|1533||25 January||Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn|
|1 June||Coronation of Anne Boleyn|
|7 September||Birth of Elizabeth I|
|1534||20 April||Execution of Elizabeth Barton, Nun of Kent|
|1535||6 July||Execution of Thomas More|
|1536||7 January||Death of Katherine of Aragon|
|19 May||Execution of Anne Boleyn|
|30 May||Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour|
|23 July||Death of Henry Fitzroy|
|2 October||Beginning of the Lincolnshire Rising / Pilgrimage of Grace|
|1537||12 October||Birth of Edward VI|
|24 October||Death of Jane Seymour|
|1540||6 January||Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves|
|9 July||Annulment of marriage between Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves|
|28 July||Marriage of Henry VIII and Katherine Howard, execution of Thomas Cromwell|
|1541||27 May||Execution of Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury|
|1542||13 February||Execution of Katherine Howard|
|1543||12 July||Marriage of Henry VIII and Katherine Parr|
|1545||19 July||Sinking of the Mary Rose|
|1546||16 July||Execution of Anne Askew|
|1547||19 January||Execution of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey|
|28 January||Death of Henry VIII and accession of Edward VI|
|10 September||Battle of Pinkie Cleugh|
|1548||5 September||Death of Katherine Parr|
|1549||20 March||Execution of Thomas Seymour, Baron Seymour|
|1552||22 January||Execution of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset|
|1553||6 July||Death of Edward VI|
|10 July||Proclamation of Jane Grey as queen|
|19 July||Overthrow of Jane Grey and accession of Mary I|
|22 August||Execution of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland|
|1 October||Coronation of Mary I|
|1554||12 February||Execution of Jane Grey|
|25 July||Marriage of Mary I and Philip II of Spain|
|1555||16 October||Execution of Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London|
|1556||21 March||Execution of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury|
|1557||16 July||Death of Anne of Cleves|
|1558||17 November||Death of Mary I and accession of Elizabeth I|
|1559||15 January||Coronation of Elizabeth I|
|1587||8 February||Execution of Mary Queen of Scots|
|1588||19 July||First sighting of the Spanish Armada off the English coast|
|29 July||Battle of Gravelines and defeat of Spanish Armada|
|1601||25 February||Execution of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex|
|1603||24 March||Death of Elizabeth I and accession of James I|
Portcullis, greyhound, crowned Tudor rose, crowned hawthorn bush, red dragon
The portcullis is currently the symbol for parliament, an institution of justice and law, which Henry VII did revolutionise during his reign. The portcullis was also representative of his royal blood through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, as it was the symbol of her house.
Red is typically the colour that represents both military strength and magnanimity. The dragon represents valour and protection, and appears on the Welsh flag. This is possibly to demonstrate Henry’s Welsh roots (he was born in Wales, and the Tudor name is Welsh).
The greyhound represents courage, loyalty and vigilance. Henry VII courageously took the crown on the battlefield, and was vigilant for anyone looking to take it away from him. He appears to have been loyal to his wife, and we don’t know for sure of any illegitimate children he may have had, or even any mistresses. Continue reading
Lambert Simnel / Perkin Warbeck 1487-1499
The aims of the Simnel and Warbeck rebellions were to replace Henry VII on the English throne with what the people saw as the “true heir”. Henry VII was a usurper, and the only Lancastrian claimant left since the death of Henry VI in 1471.
The cause of the Simnel and Warbeck rebellions was the fact that Henry VII was a usurper with no real claim to the throne. He had taken the throne from the Yorkist Richard III, who had usurped it from the rightful heir, the son of Edward IV – Edward V – and supposedly then had Edward and his younger brother, Richard, killed in the Tower of London. Henry’s claim to the throne came through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, who was descended from the illegitimate line of John of Gaunt and his mistress, Katherine Swynford. The Beaufort line had been legitimised but barred from succeeding to the throne. The people of England weren’t entirely convinced that the Princes in the Tower were dead and, even if they were, the Earl of Warwick was another contender with a claim to the throne. Simnel pretended to be the Earl of Warwick, the son of Richard III’s elder brother, George Duke of Clarence. Warbeck pretended to be Richard Duke of York, the younger of the Princes in the Tower. Neither were entirely convincing. Continue reading
Aragon, Katherine of = First Queen to Henry VIII, marriage annulled 1533, died 1536.
Ashley, Kat = Governess and close friend to Elizabeth I from her childhood. Died 1565.
Aske, Robert = One of the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536. Executed 1537.
Beaufort, Margaret = Mother to Henry VII. Outlived her son and saw the accession of her grandson, Henry VIII.
Blount, Bessie = Henry VIII’s mistress, and the only one to give him an acknowledged illegitimate child – Henry Fitzroy.
Boleyn, Anne = Second Queen to Henry VIII, executed 1536 for adultery and incest.
Boleyn, George = Brother to Henry VIII’s second Queen. Accused of adultery and incest with his sister. Executed 1536.
Boleyn, Mary = Sister of Henry VIII’s second Queen. Mistress of Henry VIII. Died 1543.
Brandon, Charles Duke of Suffolk and best friend to Henry VIII. Married Henry VIII’s sister, Mary. Died 1546. Continue reading
Philippa Gregory, David Baldwin and Michael Jones, The Women of the Cousins’ War: the Duchess, the Queen and the King’s Mother (London: Simon and Schuster Ltd, 2011), Hardback, ISBN 978-0-85720-177-5
Title: Although the book is called The Women of the Cousins’ War, the book only examines a few of them – Elizabeth Woodville, Margaret Beaufort and Jacquetta of Luxembourg. It doesn’t look at Margaret of Anjou or Anne Neville in a lot of detail. Nevertheless, a good study of those it does examine in detail.
Preface: The preface discusses several important questions, like why write about these women? What’s so important about them? It also goes a lot wider, looking at what history is, and what fiction is, and how they can go together. There is also a sub-section on women’s place in history. The introduction is a little long, almost as long as a chapter. Continue reading
Lambert Simnel claimed to be the Earl of Warwick, the eldest son of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville, who was in Henry VII’s care in the Tower of London.[i] The success (or failure) of Simnel’s rebellion hinged on the Earl of Warwick – Henry VII could prove that Simnel wasn’t Warwick.[ii] Obviously, Simnel wasn’t Warwick because Warwick was in the Tower, and can’t be in two places at once. The idea for passing him off as Warwick came about after it was rumoured that Warwick had escaped from the Tower. The initial idea was to have passed him off as one of the Princes in the Tower.[iii] After the death of Edward IV and the disappearance of the Princes in the Tower, Warwick was the next in line to the throne, even though his father had been indicted for treason. What did sway public opinion were the actions of Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, who supported Simnel and recognised him as her nephew.[iv] This added foreign support to Simnel’s cause, and it was probably only the fact that Henry VII could produce the real Warwick that saved his throne. Continue reading
Foreign alliances were the backbone of the Tudor dynasty (1485-1603). They were a way to demonstrate support for a new dynasty, and cement its credentials. The claim of Henry VII to the English throne wasn’t that strong on its own, but was strengthened by political marriages, like that of Katherine of Aragon to Prince Arthur in 1501. However, wars also demonstrated that the dynasty had a right to the throne – Henry VII claimed that since he beat Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, Richard wasn’t the rightful ruler and Henry was. Foreign alliances were also used to neutralise threats from enemy countries, like Scotland. Several of these instances will be examined in the following essay.
The most important foreign alliance in the sixteenth century was the marriage of Prince Arthur, heir to Henry VII, to Katherine of Aragon, daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1501.This marriage demonstrated that the Spanish monarchy recognised the claim of the Tudors to the English throne. Refusing the marriage would show that the Spanish didn’t believe Henry VII to be the rightful King of England. Continue reading
October 1399 8th Plantagenet king Richard II taken down the Thames – 1400 found starved to death.
Henry of Bolingbroke – Henry IV = right of kings undermined and whole dynasties collapsed – turned against each other and ended with the destruction of the dynasty.
1380s peasant’s revolt – Richard II forced to flee to the Tower.
Trigger = tax for war against the French.
Revolt against king’s councillors.
Simon Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury, seized and executed. The day after Richard met with the rebels, led by Watt Tyler. Tyler killed in a scuffle by the mayor of London.
Richard single-handedly halted rebellion = god-given right to rule.
Royal displays of kingship. Continue reading
Leanda de Lisle, ‘Tudor: the Family Story 1437-1603’ (London: Chatto & Windus, 2013) Hardback, ISBN 978-0-701-18588-6
Title: The title suggests that the book doesn’t just discuss the events of the reigns of the Tudors, but actually the people involved – the monarchs, consorts, politicians and wider royal family. The focus on the people offers a different perspective on the Tudor era.
Preface: The introduction/preface introduces the ideas that shaped the Tudor dynasty and the ideas that allowed them to come to the throne – namely the killing of kings. It also discusses the beginnings of the Wars of the Roses (the Yorkist and Lancastrian lines).
Citations: The citations are very well done. They are clear and concise, and make it easy to find exactly the text you’re looking for. Divided down by chapter and then numbered within that makes it very easy. The extra information also included in the notes adds something to your knowledge. Continue reading
1485 Battle of Bosworth Field – from France Henry VII sailed to Wales, had spent half of his life on the run.
Hunger for power, iron determination, manipulative and paranoid.
“Never known a moment’s peace.”
Henry came ashore at Mill Bay in Pembrokeshire – tried to slip in undetected.
“Judge me O Lord and favour my cause” – odds were against him.
Appealed to the Stanley family.
Army of Richard III outnumbered Henry’s – 22 August 1485.
Stanley watched and kept his options open, eventually declared for Henry VII and turned the tide of the battle.
Henry would fight for the rest of his life to secure the dynasty.
October 1485 Henry was crowned but knew that what had happened to Richard III could happen to him.
Margaret Beaufort was the only royal link – illegitimate. Continue reading