How United was Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella?


The Tudor connection: Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon’s daughter was Katherine of Aragon, the wife of Prince Arthur of England, and later the wife of Henry VIII. Mary I was Isabella and Ferdinand’s grand-daughter. Their English line stopped with Mary I.

Ferdinand II of Aragon by Michael Sittow
Ferdinand II of Aragon by Michael Sittow

Spain was United

Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon’s marriage technically did lead to the unification of Spain, although it wasn’t under their leadership, or even that of their successor, their daughter Juana (known as The Mad). Unification came under the rule of their grandson, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Continue reading “How United was Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella?”

Why Did Thomas Wolsey Fall from Power in 1529?


Cardinal Wolsey by an unknown artist c.1520 from the National Portrait Gallery.
Cardinal Wolsey by an unknown artist c.1520 from the National Portrait Gallery.

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was Henry VIII’s chief minister from his accession in 1509 until his dramatic fall in 1529. The reasons for this sudden fall are hotly debated amongst historians – was it his inability to give Henry VIII a divorce from Katherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn? Or was it that the nobility were jealous of Wolsey’s huge amount of power and influence? Or was it just bad luck? At what point did his fall become inevitable? These ideas will be discussed in the following short essay.

The issue of Henry VIII’s divorce or “great matter” has taken over the history of this period. This and the break with Rome seem to almost characterise the Tudor dynasty. However, there was so much more to it than fame. Henry VIII’s desire for Anne Boleyn brought down his chief minister, and led to England’s division from the Papacy in Rome. It also led to the idea that a king could marry for love. Continue reading “Why Did Thomas Wolsey Fall from Power in 1529?”

Mary, Dowager Queen of France and Duchess of Suffolk


Mary was born on 18th March 1496 to Henry VII and his wife, Elizabeth of York. She was the youngest of her surviving siblings: Arthur, Henry and Margaret. She was betrothed in 1507 to the future Charles V, the son of Philip I and Juana, the sister of Katherine of Aragon. However, the treaty fell through and she was instead betrothed to Louis XII of France who was thirty-four years her senior. They married on 9th October 1514, but Louis died on 1st January 1515, less than three months after their marriage. They had no children.

Mary was almost certainly in love with Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, at this time. Brandon was a close friend of Mary’s brother, Henry VIII. Suffolk was sent to bring Mary back from France. There is debate over whether or not Henry knew of his sister’s feelings for his closest friend, but he wanted Mary’s second marriage to be to his advantage. However, they married in secret on 3rd March 1515, which was technically treason (marrying into the royal family without the monarch’s consent). Because of the intervention of Thomas Wolsey, Henry’s first minister, the couple were let off with a fine once Henry had gotten over his outrage. Continue reading “Mary, Dowager Queen of France and Duchess of Suffolk”

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