For this post analysing the speech made by Elizabeth I at Tilbury in Essex before the Spanish Armada in 1588, I have used a copy taken from the British Library website (http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item102878.html), which is also written below.
“My loving people,
We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit our selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear. I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects; and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live and die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust.
I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm: to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field.
I know already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns; and We do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean time, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.”
The education of Mary I was influenced mainly by her mother and her tutor, Juan Vives. They expected a lot from her – she was not taught only feminine pastimes, but also how to rule a country.[i] Mary had experience in ruling a court and country from a young age, since she was Princess of Wales until such a time as Henry VIII had a male heir, so she took up residence in that country. It was an unusual education for a woman, even for a princess, but Katherine’s own parents were unusual in that respect.
Katherine knew that women could rule a country, as her mother Isabella I of Castile had done in Spain, and Mary came to believe that one day she would be Queen and rule England as her grandmother had ruled Spain.[ii] Katherine was more closely involved in Mary’s childhood and education and so she became the primary influence on her daughter. With the death of Katherine’s father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Katherine transferred all of her familial affection and loyalty to Mary.[iii] As Mary was Katherine’s only surviving child after a number of stillbirths and miscarriages, it was no wonder that they were very close. Continue reading “How Far was Mary I Influenced by the Life and Memory of her Mother, Katherine of Aragon?”
The Tudor connection: Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon’s daughter was Katherine of Aragon, the wife of Prince Arthur of England, and later the wife of Henry VIII. Mary I was Isabella and Ferdinand’s grand-daughter. Their English line stopped with Mary I.
Spain was United
Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon’s marriage technically did lead to the unification of Spain, although it wasn’t under their leadership, or even that of their successor, their daughter Juana (known as The Mad). Unification came under the rule of their grandson, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Continue reading “How United was Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella?”
Titles: Princess of Wales / Lady Mary / Queen of England, Ireland and France / Queen of Spain
Dates: 18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558
Spouse: Philip II of Spain 1527-1598
Parents: Henry VIII 1491-1547 & Katherine of Aragon 1485-1536
Siblings: Elizabeth I 1533-1603 & Edward VI 1537-1553 (half-siblings)
Noble Connections: Mary was the grand-daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain. She was also the cousin of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Her governess was the Countess of Salisbury, and her godparents included the Duchess of Norfolk and the Countess of Devon.
Title/s: King of Spain / King of England / King of Portugal / Duke of Milan.
Birth / Death: 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598.
Spouse: Maria of Portugal 1527 – 1545 / Mary I of England 1518 – 1558 / Elizabeth of Valois 1545 – 1568 / Anne of Austria 1549 – 1580.
Children: Carlos Prince of Asturias 1545 – 1568 (by Maria of Portugal) / Isabella Clara Eugenia 1566 – 1633 / Catherine Michelle 1567 – 1597 (by Elizabeth of Valois) / Ferdinand Prince of Asturias 1571 – 1578 / Charles Laurence 1573 – 1575 / Diego Prince of Asturias 1575 – 1582 / Philip III of Spain 1578 – 1621 / Maria 1580 – 1583 (by Anne of Austria).
How do Historians Account for the Comparative Differences in Witch Hunting and the Witchcraze Throughout Europe?
The witchcraze was a period in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries where so-called ‘witches’ were hunted and punished for practising witchcraft. This belief in witchcraft was most noticeable in Scotland and continental Europe as this is where the majority of accusations took place. This essay will look at several different areas of witchcraft and the witchcraze, including where beliefs did and did not take hold, the proportion of men and women who were accused, the influence of the Protestant Reformation and the prosecution of witches across Europe. Historians tend to agree that the witchcraze took off in Protestant areas more than Catholic areas, and also that it was largely female-identified. Historians also agree that there were different punishments for witchcraft in different countries, with some being stricter than others. However, there are some problems in analysing the differences in the witchcraze in different countries because for some countries it is difficult to access the trial records and historians do not even agree on the number of people who were executed as witches in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries at the height of the witchcraze.
The witchcraze had more of an effect in some countries than others but the questions that were asked to accused witches by the interrogators and the authorities were often given the same or very similar answers all across the globe, and it was this which first gave rise to the idea that the witchcraze was an ‘international conspiracy’.Continue reading “Witchcraft in the 16th and 17th Centuries”